Case Title: 2. But percentage grades are more precise, right?

Element Title: Items baby, its all about the items (6 of 13)

In item writing the goal is to "measure important things and have congruence between what the item measures and what the teacher intends" (Skip Kifer). Planning of the assessment and analysis of the assessment should reflect each other. The table of specifications, originally outlined by Bloom in the handbook for formative and summative assessment (see the images below for example), guides the selection of items as well as the design of curriculum. It helps teachers make explicit exactly what they intend to teach and assess. When designing assessments I am referring to all types of items and forms, not just multiple choice. Even though we overuse them, it is important to remember that multiple choice items can measure complex thinking if designed well. You can always couple a MC or TF question with a open response asking the learner to explain their choice. Of course everyone is talking about deconstructing standards into learning targets. In the next element of this case we are going to look at the TOS reimagined a little using complexity across the top like the original TOS, but with learning targets down side. If you are new to learning targets here's a two videos that try to explain. They might not capture everything, but they are pretty good (I gave the students an 'As')